As machining technology is advancing, its role is getting bigger and bigger to provide precision parts for many industries. While machining is facilitating many crucial industries like aerospace/medical/communications and there is something immensely vital, that is, the consistent supply of high precision parts. The point to focus on while analyzing part’s quality is the machining accuracy.
Even with a huge technological evolution in machining, it is hard to maintain a consistent machining accuracy of the parts under the influence of the machining process. An intelligently executed process can output a very fine product but once an error occurs during the machining process due to any reason then it will disturb the machining accuracy of the part.
Based on the problem discussed above, it is imperative to further ameliorate the machining technology to provide errorless machining parts. As well as, make the use of the most advanced scientific based technologies to improve the machining process and thus, the quality, precision, and efficiency of parts may be guaranteed satisfactorily.
In this article, we are going to elaborate on how important are the improvements in mechanical processing technology for parts processing accuracy. We will elaborate on the influencing factors of mechanical processing technology on parts processing accuracy. Here, the mechanical processing process, the thermal deformation during the process, the tool geometry error, the error of the machine tools, and other important factors will be discussed. Further, many influencing factors control measures will be discussed in detail to persistently ameliorate the standard of processing technology to constructively minimize the errors in the part processing.
Mechanical Processing Technology
Mechanical processing is an extremely vital stage for the precision parts manufacturing process. It uses different sort of methods to convert a rough mechanical workpiece into a very valuable part. In the machining process, numerous technological processes are often involved. It generally involves three stages i.e., designing a required part using a computer, manufacturing the part with the help of high-precision instruments, and finally, it is being inspected to ensure consistency with the qualified products.
Parts Processing Accuracy
The machining accuracy of parts is largely designated to the processed parts and the data of every part fulfills the pre-designed standards and possesses a high level of acquiescence. This means that the parts being manufactured offer high accuracy in processing. The size, shape, and position are three types of accuracy and they cumulatively constitute the parts processing accuracy.
In the case of many different parts, there will be different processing accuracies according to the requirements of each part. Every individual company usually stipulates its machining accuracy. But generally speaking, the parts processing accuracy of each company depends on their national standard.
Factors Affecting Machining Accuracy of Parts
Numerous factors can affect the machining accuracy of the parts. If not paid serious attention they can cause serious error problems. These factors are discussed below
1: Error Caused by Thermal Deformation During Machining Process
While processing a workpiece, it will be in constant contact with different tools. It will be facing consistent cutting, grinding, and other processes that generate heat. At this moment, the workpiece lacks sufficient rigidity that results in blank deformation. This deformation leads to errors and eventually influence the machining accuracy of the parts.
2: Tool Geometry Error Affects Machining Accuracy
During the machining process, the machine tools directly affect the machining accuracy. While manufacturing a part, multiple tools are being used to accomplish the task, and those machine tools that have been in use for a quite long time are affected by constant friction. This continuous friction naturally causes the tools to wear and ultimately affects the machining accuracy.
3: Machine Tools Error Affects Machining Accuracy
We have discussed the above reasons for errors due to tool geometry that reduces machining accuracy. But sometimes, during the installation of tools, they are not fixed properly such as foundation instability or wear that generates errors to a certain extent leading to machining inaccuracy of parts.
Many tool errors may be within the allowable error range but some cannot be ignored because they can create some serious problems in the machining process. Thus, much attention needs to pay to tackle these error problems of mechanical equipment. Furthermore, a machine tool in long service can lower its machining performance such as transmission chain failure and machine tool aging. That will affect the machining accuracy of the parts too.
Preventive Measures to Control Influencing Factors
1: Strengthen Processing Temperature Control
The quality of parts will be greatly affected due to the heat generated during the machining process, so, the relevant operator needs to carefully manage the heat generated in the process. When the machining process is being executed, specific mechanical equipment manufacturing the workpiece will greatly impact the part accuracy due to the excessively high or low temperature.
While the processing of the part, once mechanical equipment reaches its full speed and alternatively, the system temperature will raise immediately. So, to control the impact of the heat generated, necessary measures need to be taken straight away such as cold-water cooling should be applied.
For example, during the grinding of a part, when the grinding wheel reaches its higher speeds and consequently, heat will be generated due to the friction between the grinding wheel and the part. That will increase system temperature that leads to workpiece deformation. At this crucial moment if the cold-water cooling method is not being applied that will lower processing accuracy otherwise.
In the case of repeated cutting of the parts, there will also a greater amount of heat be generated and here, physical cooling can be applied to reduce the temperature. By applying these measures, the thermal deformation affecting machining accuracy can be successfully controlled.
2: Inspecting Tools Geometry Constantly
During the machining process, one important factor that immensely affects the processing accuracy and that is the tool’s geometric accuracy error. So, the operators need to carefully tackle the geometric accuracy error while performing a specific process and responsibly optimize the tool.
The primary reasons for the geometric accuracy errors are the processing equipment, how it is installed and requires a seasoned operator to run the process. To effectively reduce this error, the operator needs to inspect the mechanical equipment regularly, must conduct a comprehensive analysis, and find out the possible reasons for the error. In this way, this error can be largely controlled and machining accuracy can be better.
3: Scientifically Optimize Processing Machine Tools
By applying scientifically proven effective measures, optimize and upgrade the processing mechanism of the machining equipment. Scientifically configure the processing technology system with high specifications and high quality that can provide guaranteed parts processing accuracy.
But the quality and performance of some equipment in mechanical processing cannot be fully promised. Therefore, for future improvements in the processing accuracy, it is the need of the hour to start working to introduce the world to advanced processing technology and production equipment. That can optimize the current processing and production process and effectively improve the performance and quality of equipment and other problems.
4: Improve the Level of Processing Technology
Before starting the machining process, a scientific-based process flow chart must be designed. While designing the flow chart, one must consider the maximum processing accuracy and other influencing factors too. But it is also required to analyze the actual situation.
When a specific workflow chart is finalized then the adequate arrangement of the mechanical processing period is very important. It will help to improve not only efficiency but also a way forward to suggest the effective improvement of the mechanical processing quality and parts processing accuracy. Further, it is important to ensure the betterment in the quality of mechanical processing and production process, as is the application of advanced processing technology.
In a nutshell, in the machining industry, it is required to fully clarify the requirements of parts processing standards and these standards must base on the reasonable planning of the machining process, scientific apply advanced and compatible processing technology. But on the other hand, thorough consideration should be given to the effect of mechanical processing technology on parts. The factors influencing machining accuracy must be sought out by providing scientific-based solutions, so the errors affecting machining accuracy and precision can be minimized.